Operating expenses for the three years ended December 31, 2011 were as follows:
|Research and development||$||8,350||$||6,576||$||5,653|
|Marketing, general and administrative||$||7,670||$||6,309||$||7,931|
|Restructuring and asset impairment charges||$||—||$||—||$||231|
|Amortization of acquisition-related intangibles||$||260||$||18||$||35|
Research and Development. R&D spending increased by $1.8 billion, or 27%, in 2011 compared to 2010, and increased by $923 million, or 16%, in 2010 compared to 2009. The increase in 2011 compared to 2010 was primarily due to the expenses of McAfee and IMC, and higher compensation expenses based on an increase in employees. In addition, lower overall process development costs due to the transition to manufacturing start-up costs related to our 22nm process technology were mostly offset by higher process development costs due to R&D of our next-generation 14nm process technology. The increase in 2010 compared to 2009 was primarily due to higher profit-dependent compensation, an increase in employees, and higher process development costs as we transitioned from manufacturing start-up costs related to our 32nm process technology to R&D of our 22nm process technology.
Marketing, General and Administrative. Marketing, general and administrative expenses increased $1.4 billion, or 22%, in 2011 compared to 2010, and decreased $1.6 billion, or 20%, in 2010 compared to 2009. The increase in 2011 compared to 2010 was primarily due to the expenses of McAfee and IMC, higher compensation expenses based on an increase in employees, and higher advertising expenses (including cooperative advertising expenses). The decrease in 2010 compared to 2009 was due to the 2009 charge of $1.447 billion incurred as a result of the fine imposed by the European Commission (EC) and the $1.25 billion payment to AMD in 2009 as part of a settlement agreement. These decreases were partially offset by higher advertising expenses (including cooperative advertising expenses), higher profit-dependent compensation, and, to a lesser extent, expenses related to our Wind River Software Group operating segment and an expense of $100 million recognized during the fourth quarter of 2010 due to a patent cross-license agreement that we entered into with NVIDIA in January 2011 (see "Note 17: Identified Intangible Assets" in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).
R&D, combined with marketing, general and administrative expenses, were 30% of net revenue in 2011 and 2010, and 39% of net revenue in 2009.
Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges. The following table summarizes restructuring and asset impairment charges by plan for the three years ended December 31, 2011:
|2009 restructuring program||$||—||$||—||$||215|
|2006 efficiency program||—||—||16|
|Total restructuring and asset
The 2009 restructuring included closing two assembly and test facilities in Malaysia, one facility in the Philippines, and one facility in China; stopping production at a 200mm wafer fabrication facility in Oregon; and ending production at our 200mm wafer fabrication facility in California. The 2006 efficiency program was designed to improve operational efficiency and financial results. Both programs are complete.
Amortization of Acquisition-Related Intangibles. The increase of $242 million was primarily due to the amortization of intangibles related to the acquisitions of McAfee and the WLS business of Infineon, both completed in the first quarter of 2011. For further information, see "Note 14: Acquisitions" and "Note 17: Identified Intangible Assets" in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.