Recent Accounting Standards and Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 29, 2018
|Accounting Changes and Error Corrections [Abstract]|
|Accounting Changes [Text Block]||
NOTE 2: RECENT ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES
We assess the adoption impacts of recently issued accounting standards by the Financial Accounting Standards Board on our financial statements. The sections below describe impacts from newly adopted standards as well as material updates to our previous assessments, if any, from our 2017 Form 10-K.
ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADOPTED
Retirement Benefits - Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost
Standard/Description: This amended standard was issued to provide additional guidance on the presentation of net periodic benefit cost in the income statement and on the components eligible for capitalization in assets. In accordance with the revised standard, we have separated the different components of net periodic benefit cost, presenting service cost components within operating income and other non-service components separately outside of operating income on the income statement. In addition, only service costs are now eligible for inventory capitalization.
Effective Date and Adoption Considerations: Effective in the first quarter of 2018. Changes to the presentation of benefit costs were required to be adopted retrospectively, while changes to the capitalization of service costs into inventories were required to be adopted prospectively. The standard permits, as a practical expedient, use of the amounts disclosed in the Retirement Benefit Plans footnote for the prior comparative periods as the estimation basis for applying the retrospective presentation requirement.
Effect on Financial Statements or Other Significant Matters: Adoption of the amended standard resulted in the reclassification of approximately $114 million of non-service net periodic benefit costs from line items within operating income to interest and other, net, for the year ended December 30, 2017 ($259 million for the year ended December 31, 2016).
Revenue Recognition - Contracts with Customers
Standard/Description: This standard was issued to achieve a consistent application of revenue recognition within the U.S., resulting in a single revenue model to be applied by all companies. Under the new model, recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the new standard requires that companies disclose the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.
Effective Date and Adoption Considerations: Effective in the first quarter of 2018. This standard was adopted using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings for the fiscal year beginning December 31, 2017.
Effect on Financial Statements or Other Significant Matters: Our adoption assessments identified a change in revenue recognition timing on our component sales made to distributors. Under the new standard we now recognize revenue when we deliver to the distributor rather than deferring recognition until the distributor sells the components.
On the date of initial application, we removed the deferred income and related receivables on component sales made to distributors through a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings. The revenue deferral that was historically recognized in the following period is expected to be primarily offset by the acceleration of revenue recognition in the current period as control of the product transfers to our customer.
Our assessment also identified a change in expense recognition timing related to payments we make to our customers for distinct services they perform as part of cooperative advertising programs, which were previously recorded as operating expenses. We now recognize the expense for cooperative advertising in the period the marketing activities occur. Previously we recognized the expense in the period the customer was entitled to participate in the program, which coincided with the period of sale. On the date of initial adoption, we capitalized the expense of cooperative advertising not performed through a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings.
We have completed our adoption and implemented policies, processes, and controls to support the standard's measurement and disclosure requirements. Refer to the tables below, which summarize the impacts of the changes discussed above to our financial statements recorded as an adjustment to opening balances for the fiscal year beginning December 31, 2017, and also provide comparative reporting of the impacts of adopting the standard.
Accounting Policy Updates: We recognize net product revenue when we satisfy performance obligations as evidenced by the transfer of control of our products or services to customers. Substantially all of our revenue is derived from product sales. In accordance with contract terms, revenue for product sales is recognized at the time of product shipment from our facilities or delivery to the customer location, as determined by the agreed upon shipping terms. We include shipping charges billed to customers in net revenue, and include the related shipping costs in cost of sales.
We measure revenue based on the amount of consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for products or services. Any variable consideration is recognized as a reduction of net revenue at the time of revenue recognition. We determine variable consideration, which consists primarily of sales price concessions, by estimating the most likely amount of consideration we expect to receive from the customer based on historical analysis of customer purchase volumes. The impacts of distributor sales price reductions resulting from price protection agreements are also estimated based on historical analysis of such activity and are reflected as a reduction in net revenue.
We make payments to our customers through cooperative advertising programs, such as our Intel Inside® program, for marketing activities for certain of our products. We generally record the payment as a reduction in revenue in the period that the revenue is earned, unless the payment is for a distinct service, which we record as expense when the marketing activities occur.
Financial Instruments - Recognition and Measurement
Standard/Description: Requires changes to the accounting for financial instruments that primarily affect equity securities, financial liabilities measured using the fair value option, and the presentation and disclosure requirements for such instruments.
Effective Date and Adoption Considerations: Effective in the first quarter of 2018. Changes to our marketable equity securities were required to be adopted using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings for the fiscal year beginning December 31, 2017. Since management has elected to apply the measurement alternative to non-marketable equity securities, changes to these securities were adopted prospectively.
Effect on Financial Statements or Other Significant Matters: Marketable equity securities previously classified as available-for-sale equity investments are now measured and recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recorded through the income statement.
All non-marketable equity securities formerly classified as cost method investments are measured and recorded using the measurement alternative. Equity securities measured and recorded using the measurement alternative are recorded at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from qualifying observable price changes. Adjustments resulting from impairments and qualifying observable price changes are recorded in the income statement.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2018, in accordance with the standard, recurring fair value disclosures are no longer provided for equity securities measured using the measurement alternative. In addition, the existing impairment model has been replaced with a new one-step qualitative impairment model. No initial adoption adjustment was recorded for these instruments since the standard was required to be applied prospectively for securities measured using the measurement alternative.
We have completed our adoption and implemented policies, processes, and controls to support the standard's measurement and disclosure requirements. Refer to the table below, which summarizes impacts, net of tax, of the changes discussed above to our financial statements. This reflects an adjustment to opening balances for the fiscal year beginning December 31, 2017.
Accounting Policy Updates: We regularly invest in equity securities of public and private companies to promote business and strategic objectives. Equity investments are measured and recorded as follows:
Realized and unrealized gains or losses resulting from changes in value and sale of our equity investments are recorded in gains (losses) on equity investments, net. We previously recorded unrealized gains and losses through other comprehensive income (loss) and realized gains and losses on the sale, exchange or impairment of these equity investments through gains (losses) on equity investments, net.
The carrying value of our portfolio of non-marketable equity securities totaled $2.9 billion as of September 29, 2018 ($2.6 billion as of December 30, 2017). The carrying value of our non-marketable equity securities is adjusted for qualifying observable price changes resulting from the issuance of similar or identical securities by the same issuer. Determining whether an observed transaction is similar to a security within our portfolio requires judgment based on the rights and preferences of the securities. Recording upward and downward adjustments to the carrying value of our equity securities as a result of observable price changes requires quantitative assessments of the fair value of our securities using various valuation methodologies and involves the use of estimates.
Non-marketable equity securities and equity method investments are also subject to periodic impairment reviews. Our quarterly impairment analysis considers both qualitative and quantitative factors that may have a significant impact on the investee's fair value. Qualitative factors considered include industry and market conditions, the financial performance and near-term prospects of the investee, and other relevant events and factors affecting the investee. When indicators of impairment exist, we prepare quantitative assessments of the fair value of our equity investments using both the market and income approaches which require judgment and the use of estimates, including discount rates, investee revenues and costs, and comparable market data of private and public companies, among others. Prior to fiscal 2018, non-marketable equity securities were tested for impairment using the other-than-temporary impairment model which considered the severity and duration of a decline in fair value below cost and our ability and intent to hold the investment for a sufficient period of time to allow for recovery. Impairments of equity investments were $372 million in the first nine months of 2018 and $613 million in the first nine months of 2017.
Opening Balance Adjustments
The following table summarizes the effects of adopting Revenue Recognition - Contracts with Customers, Financial Instruments - Recognition and Measurement, and other accounting standards on our financial statements for the fiscal year beginning December 31, 2017 as an adjustment to the opening balance:
The following table summarizes the impacts of adopting the new revenue standard on our consolidated condensed statements of income and balance sheets:
ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NOT YET ADOPTED
Standard/Description: This new lease accounting standard requires that we recognize leased assets and corresponding liabilities on the balance sheet and provide enhanced disclosure of lease activity.
Effective Date and Adoption Considerations: Effective in the first quarter of 2019. The standard requires a modified retrospective adoption. We can choose to apply the provisions at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements or at the beginning of the period of adoption. We have elected to apply the guidance at the beginning of the period of adoption.
Effect on Financial Statements or Other Significant Matters: We expect the valuation of our right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, previously described as operating leases, to approximate the present value of our forecasted future lease commitments. We are currently implementing processes to comply with the measurement and disclosure requirements.
Cloud Computing Implementation Costs
Standard/Description: The standard requires implementation costs incurred in cloud computing (i.e. hosting) arrangements that are service contracts to be assessed under existing guidance to determine which costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred.
Effective Date and Adoption Considerations: Effective in the first quarter of 2020. The standard requires adoption either retrospectively or prospectively.
Effect on Financial Statements or Other Significant Matters: We have not yet determined the impact of this standard on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for reporting accounting changes, excludes error corrections information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef